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Indeed, over 80% of youth who use any tobacco product also use at least one other product (Anic et al., 2018). Although there may have been other content that our search did not uncover, our interest was to identify the most common categories of misleading content that could be tracked over time. But how best to achieve that outcome poses other questions because it is not clearly in the financial interests of YouTube to moderate the enormous flow of information on its platform. The taxonomy was based on a search of the YouTube platform using 135 tobacco-related keywords (see Appendix) which included various common terms for tobacco use (e.g., smoking), methods of delivery (e.g., pipes, hookah, e-cigarette), tobacco brands (e.g., Marlboro, Blu), and forms of tobacco (e.g., shisha, chew). ).comments_inappropriateness: This feature is equal to the ratio of number of comments with swear words to the total number of comments on the video.dislike_like_ratio: Ratio of number of dislikes to number of likes on the video.Join one of the world's largest A.I. (1) Demonstrating fun ways to use tobacco, such as using vape equipment to do smoke tricks without any information about the potential ill effects of inhaling nicotine vapor or tobacco smoke; News feeds in virtually all social media platforms include engagement metrics, such as the number of times each post is liked and shared.

At present, they have channels on YouTube that provide information about tobacco hazards, but they are not targeted to the highly viewed content we have identified. As a result, the platform has the potential to influence the information that young people receive about many topics, including those that are hazardous to health such as tobacco products (e.g., Kong et al., 2019). We continued this process for each category until we no longer found novel items. The misleading-information environment on YouTube raises questions about how best to counteract such content.

YouTube's Community Guidelines don't explicitly prevent creators from uploading videos featuring conspiracy theories or misleading information. This enabled us to identify the most viewed video in each category at both time points. Nevertheless, the widespread presence of misleading tobacco content on YouTube suggests that this information environment promotes tobacco use by young people who are avid users of the site (AlbarracĂ­n et al., 2018; Romer et al., 2017) and who are likely to be exposed to this content (Bae et al., 2019). We also did not conduct a new search for additional misleading content in 2019. (4) Asserting that tobacco use is actually healthy; and Under the very liberal regulatory regime of Section 230, it is not clear who is responsible for protecting the public from misleading health content on the internet. Although the breadth of the CDA has been slowly restricted over time (Kosseff, 2016), the regulatory regime essentially removes responsibility for monitoring or controlling the information provided by the providers of content on social media sites, even harmful health misinformation.A content analysis of popular videos on YouTube containing tobacco-relevant material revealed five categories of misleading content about tobacco use in 2013. At present, however, we are repeating the mistakes of the war on terror, prioritizing repressive, technologically deterministic solutions while failing to redress the root sociopolitical grievances that cultivate our receptivity to misinformation in the first place.What is the nature of misinformation about tobacco products on the video-sharing platform YouTube, and has viewership of such content, especially regarding the popularity of vaping, grown in recent years?Mihai Avram, Nicholas Micallef, Sameer Patil and Filippo MenczerThe most viewed examples of these messages from our searches in 2013 (Table 1) and 2019 (Table 2) indicated dramatic increases in views of the demonstration and instructional categories.

A content analysis of YouTube videos with tobacco themes identified five categories of misleading content on the site in 2013. The Google-owned site rolled out its new policy on the day of the Iowa caucuses, The New York Times reported. More careful targeting could help to counteract this misleading content.One disincentive for correcting misleading information is that YouTube as well as other internet content providers are shielded from responsibility for the content they house.

The instructional category rose from a total count of just over 62 thousand views in 2013 for how to use a pipe to a view count of over 40 million for how to make a vape device in 2019.

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